Aug 25, 2017

Moving Docker's storage to a different location

On a Linux Mint system, I was running low on disk space in the partition where Docker CE 17.06 had installed itself and was storing its files such as images. So I thought I'd move the docker storage directory to a different partition that had a lot more space, and create a symbolic link in the directory's original location to where it had been moved.

That sounded pretty simple, but it turned out to be a vexing problem.

After moving the directory, I ran a Docker container that contained an instance of Drupal 7. When I browsed to the Drupal site I got the error:
Can't connect to local MySQL server through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock'
If you do a web search on this error message, there are a lot of possible causes. In my case, the Docker container had been running fine just before the directory move, so that was an obvious culprit.

I had typed in several cp commands before running the container again, but I didn't have a clear memory or record of the steps I had taken. After the first occurrence of the error, I did further copy commands. The error kept occurring, but once in a while the site came up okay. This thrashing about included my re-initializing the docker directory at least once.

From my frustrating experience, here are a few suggestions about moving Docker's storage.

(a)  Be sure to stop the Docker service before making any changes.

(b)  Use Docker's configuration file and the -g option to indicate the location of storage. This provides both flexibility and safety in trying different locations.

(c)  If you use the cp command to copy storage contents, be sure to include the -p option to preserve owner, mode, and timestamp.

Here's an example of a sequence of steps that has worked in moving the Docker storage folder to a different location by using cp.

(1) Stop the Docker service.

# service docker stop

(2) Copy Docker's storage folder to a different partition.

# cd /var/lib
# cp -r -p docker /home/earl
# mv docker docker-save

(3) Edit the Docker configuration file to add the -g option to point to the new location. The file may already contain a commented line you can use as a starting point.

# vim /etc/default/docker

DOCKER_OPTS="--dns --dns -g /home/earl/docker"

(4) Re-start the Docker service. Run your container to test the change.

# service docker start

(5) When you are confident that the change is correct, you can remove the original directory to recover the space.

# rm -r /var/lib/docker-save


How do I change the Docker image installation directory?

Aug 2, 2017

VirtualBox, Vagrant, and KVM

I was exploring the possibility of using Vagrant with VirtualBox for doing development on my local system.

The system is running Linux Mint 17, and I was using Vagrant 1.9.7 with VirtualBox 5.1.24.

I immediately starting having problems with some of the Vagrant boxes that I tried to run. (A "Vagrant box" is an initial machine image to be loaded into the virtual machine.)

For example, using the box hashicorp/precise64, the vagrant up command showed the error:
Stderr: VBoxManage: error: VT-x is not available (VERR_VMX_NO_VMX)
VBoxManage: error: Details: code NS_ERROR_FAILURE (0x80004005), component ConsoleWrap, interface IConsole
Later, after I had learned how to configure Vagrant to have VirtualBox display its own user window, I tried to run the box geerlingguy/ubuntu1604 and got this error from VirtualBox:
VT-x/AMD-V hardware acceleration is not available on your system. Your 64-bit guest will fail to detect a 64-bit CPU and will not be able to boot.
And on the command line, kvm-ok showed:
INFO: Your CPU does not support KVM extensions
KVM acceleration can NOT be used
It turns out that there are two possible explanations for these error messages.

(1)  The processor hardware does not have the capabilities required by VirtualBox to support Linux KVM (kernel-based virtual machines). These capabilities are either Intel's VT-x or AMD's AMD-V.

VT-x is sometimes encoded as vmx, and AMD-V is sometimes encoded as svm.

(2)  The processor hardware has the capabilities but they are not enabled.

Without this hardware, VirtualBox cannot run 64-bit operating systems. However, it can still run 32-bit operating systems.

In my case, it turned out that I have a lower-end processor that does not have the capabilities at all. I was able to check this by looking at the file /proc/cpuinfo to find the model number of the processor:

   model name : Intel(R) Pentium(R) CPU B960 @ 2.20GHz

Then using the model number B960 I searched this Intel site to find its specs.

If the processor has the capabilities but they are not enabled, then you might be able to enable them by going into the BIOS and looking for a setting such as VT (virtualization technology).

And for my next system, I will be looking for the processor to have this.


ERROR: VT-X is not available



x86 virtualization